Tran dynasty (1226-1400) is considered the heroic period of Vietnamese history. 12 Kings of Tran Dynasty continue the period of peace and development of Vietnam after 1000 years having been slaved by the Chinese from the 1st to 10th century.
The Beginning of Tran Dynasty – Nha Tran
Due to the maneuvering of Tran Thu Do, Queen Ly Chieu Hoang abdicated the throne in favor of her husband Tran Canh (The first king of the Tran dynasty), beginning a dynasty that lasted 175 years. The Tran kings centralized monarchic power and vigorously enforced the law. The economy developed thanks to land reclamation and construction of dikes along the Red River.
Tran Dynasty & 3 Great Victories against Mongol & Yuan Invaders
The dynasty led 3 successful wars of resistance against the Yuan-Mongols (1258- 1288). Confucianism prevailed over Buddhism. Competitive examinations were introduced for civil service degrees. This was the era of the great Confucian scholar’s Le Van Huu, Mac Dinh Chi, Chu Van An, and Nguyen Thuyen. The vernacular script, Nôm, began to be used. The end of the dynasty was marked with numerous peasant rebellions.
12 Kings of Tran Dynasty
The 12 Tran kings and their ruling time were: Tran Thai Tong (1226-1258); Tran Thanh Tong (1258-1278); Tran Nhan Tong (1278-1293); Tran Anh Tong (1293-1314); Tran Minh Tong (1314-1329); Tran Hien Tong (1329- 1341); Tran Du Tong (1341-1369); Tran Nghe Tong (1370-1372); Tran Due Tong (1372-1377); Tran Phe De (1377-1389); Tran Thuan Tong (1389- 1398); and Tran Thieu De (1399-1400). In 1400, Regent Ho Quy Ly seized the throne.